In Vitro Fertilization is an egg fertilization technique that’s made outside the body. Egg cell is taken from the ovary and fertilized with husband’s sperm that had been prepared in the laboratory. The methods pioneered a number of British doctors and successfully brought the first IVF baby girl, Louise Brown, in 1978.
In Indonesia, the first IVF techniques applied in the Maternity Hospital Harapan Kita, Jakarta in 1987. The first Indonesian IVF baby was born May 2, 1988. And then numerous hospitals developed these techniques, including the recent Mangukusumo Cipto Hospital provides reproductive medical in one stop service.
In Vitro Fertilization process begins with the diagnosing of the husband and wife. The diagnosing including the condition of reproductive hormones, reproductive organs, and the possibility of viral infection or other diseases such as diabetes, impaired liver function, kidney and thyroid gland.
After diagnosing, the ovary is stimulated to produce many follicles that containing egg cells by injecting stimulating drugs every day for 7-9 days. After the follicles (where eggs develop) more than 20 mm in diameter, it is made eggs cell maturation injection.
Then matured eggs cell are released. Follicles that appear on the screen ultrasonography (USG) is stabbed with a needle through the vagina, and then they act the follicles suction. When the egg retrieval is conducted, a mother is not advised to use make-up and perfume because it can damage the quality of the egg.
The researchers have tried to pick raw eggs. They are taken out and matured outside. It is considered more practical and cut the costs because it does not need repeated injections to stimulate egg maturation. This technique is still in trial.
The next process is the embryo culture. Egg and sperm cells are prepared. Sperm is obtained by masturbation. Sometimes, it can also be obtained by melting the cement that was frozen earlier if the husband worries about his attendance. If the semen contains no sperm, testicular biopsy will be conducted, namely taking a small portion to search for the sperm. Normally, the sperm concentration is about 20 million per millimeter.
In Vitro Fertilization technique that is now being applied is conventional IVF and IVF-Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). In conventional IVF, an egg cell is reunited with 50000-100000 sperms in a petri dish with main goal is a good sperm get into an egg for conception.
IVF-ICSI technique is a single sperm is injected into an egg using a small pipette so that fertilization occurs. This especially is conducted when there are problems with sperm, such as sperm can not enter into an egg cell with its own strength or the amount is very less and bad quality. Formed embryos (in stage 4-8 cells) is implanted into the mother’s womb, there is usually 2-3 embryos in order to increase the odds of pregnancy. It sometimes all the embryos develop to birth twins. The embryos are expected to grow as appropriate natural conception. Currently in the world, the success of IVF is around 30-35 percent. It depends on the age and condition of the couple.
If there are embryos left over, they can be stored. In the clinic there are embryo storage facilities. Embryos are frozen in temperatures of minus 196 degrees Celsius. When couples want to have more child, the embryo will be implanted into the mother’s womb. Expectant mothers no longer have to face the process of maturation and egg retrieval.